Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by discovered the process of fermentation. He Coined the term Vaccine.
The practice of immunisation dates back hundreds of years. Buddhist monks drank snake venom to confer immunity to snake bite and variolation (smearing of a skin tear with cowpox to confer immunity to smallpox) was practiced in 17th century China.
Despite the evidence of health gains from immunisation programmes there has always been resistance to vaccines in some groups. The late 1970s and 1980s marked a period of increasing litigation and decreased profitability for vaccine manufacture, which led to a decline in the number of companies producing vaccines. The decline was arrested in part by the implementation of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation programme in the US in 1986. The legacy of this era lives on to the present day in supply crises and continued media efforts by a growing vociferous anti-vaccination lobby
Louis Pasteur’s experiments spearheaded the development of live attenuated cholera vaccine and inactivated anthrax vaccine in humans (1897 and 1904, respectively). Plague vaccine was also invented in the late 19th Century. Between 1890 and 1950, bacterial vaccine development proliferated, including the Bacillis-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, which is still in use today.
In 1857, Pasteur showed lactic acid fermentation in living organisms, namely yeast. He proved that living cells, the yeast, were responsible for forming alcohol from sugar. In 1860, he demonstrated that bacteria cause souring in milk, and this work led to the discovery of the process of pasteurization.
Fermentation refers to the metabolic process by which organic molecules (normally glucose) are converted into acids, gases, or alcohol in the absence of oxygen with the help of microorganisms. It takes place in yeast, bacteria, muscle cells, etc. Example- lactic acid fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, etc.
Fermentation is complementary to the process of glycolysis and allows ATP to be continually produced in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation regenerates NAD+ by oxidizing the NADH produced in glycolysis which can take part in glycolysis once again in order to produce more ATP.
The Important contributions of Louis Pasteur are as follows:
He developed the methods and techniques of bacteriology.
He introduced the live attenuated vaccines for Anthrax for the first time.
He coined the term ‘vaccine’.
He is credited with the introduction of sterilization techniques and the development of steam sterilizer, autoclave, and hot air oven.
In lactic acid fermentation, starch or sugar is converted into lactic acid.
In alcoholic fermentation, Pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis is broken down into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Wine and beer are produced by alcoholic fermentation.
In acetic acid fermentation, starch and sugar present in grains and fruits ferment into vinegar. For example, apple cider vinegar./SNG/